Opportunity for Rapid Large-Scale Carbon Emissions Mitigation
A solution that can be scaled globally

Section A – Introduction

1) 3-min. Animated Intro Video:

2) Extended Animated Intro Video (6 min.):

To view only the 3-min. extended segment of this intro video, visit: LINK.

3) Full (22.5-min.) video presentation:

To view specific segments of above full presentation video, click on one of the time-codes shown below:
0:30 Animation of problem
1:27 Solution – New Break-Through Technology:
2:58 Animation illustrating the Allam Cycle
6:46 Combining Allam Cycle Renewable Energy with Direct Air Capture
7:38 Example Combined Power System That Provides Reliable Power to Electrical Grid and Negative Carbon Emissions
9:15 Additional DAC Technology – TerraFixing’s Direct Air Capture (DAC) Technology:
10:16 Combining TerraFixing’s DAC technology with a Power Plant Running the Allam Cycle
10:53 Special Purpose Allam Cycle Plant for Large Scale Carbon Capture
11:43 DAC Solution by Global Thermostat
13:28 Combined Power Generation with Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CPG+CCUS) Facility
15:03 Simplified Flow Chart of Project Financing
17:37 Steps to Issue a Green Bond
19:41 Conclusions
21:01 Recommendations
4) An image of the example combined power system that is explained in the 2nd and 3rd videos shown above:
5) An image of a special purpose power plant for large scale Direct Air Capture (DAC) of CO2: 
6) An image of a Combined Power Generation with Carbon Capture, Utilization and Storage (CPG+CCUS) Facility:
7) A combined CPG+CCUS facility, which includes power plant with 100% carbon capture, renewable energy farms, direct air capture (DAC) and vertical farms will provide the following benefits:
      • Provides reliable power to the electrical grid even when wind and/or solar farms are not generating power.
      • Generates negative carbon emissions.
      • Demonstrates how the oil and gas sector can help scale-up wind and/or solar farms cost-effectively.
      • Helps the oil, gas and power plant workers transition to and participate in a low carbon economy.
      • Helps governments and companies that depend on income from fossil fuels to transition to a low-carbon economy.
      • Reduces the incentive for oil and gas companies to resist policies that support large-scale action on climate change.
      • Helps build political support to transition to a low carbon economy.
      • Helps build an industry that utilizes CO2 for productive uses including vertical farming, which supports food security.
8) Developers focused on carbon capture from industrial processes:

a) NET Power – Developer of the Allam-Fetvedt Cycle for 100% carbon capture for power plants fueled by natural gas.  NET Power is owned by Exelon CorporationMcDermott International Ltd, Occidental Petroleum Corporation (Oxy) Low Carbon Ventures, and 8 Rivers Capital.
Board members include:

b) Shell CANSOLV® CO₂ Capture System – A proprietary amine technology captures the CO2 from the flue gas and releases it as a pure stream.
c) Proton Technologies – A developer of a hydrogen production process from existing and depleted oil and gas fields that essentially CO2 emissions and keeps them in the ground.
9) 300 MW Power Plant Project Using the Allam Cycle Announced in Canada:
On August 9, 2021, Kanata Clean Power & Climate Technologies Corp (“Kanata”) issued a press release with Frog Lake First Nation (“Frog Lake”) that they have formed the Frog Lake – Kanata Power Plant Limited Partnership (the “Frog Lake – Kanata LP”) to develop the 300 MW power plant.  Frog Lake will be the lead investor and 51% majority owner of the Frog Lake – Kanata LP.  Frog Lake is a Cree-speaking Treaty 6 Nation situated in Northeastern Alberta, and the principal shareholder in Frog Lake Energy Resources Corp, Canada’s leading indigenous-owned energy company.  For more info, visit: CBC News Article.
10) Developers focused on Direct Air Capture (DAC) of CO2:
o) CarbFix – a subsidiary of Reykjavik Energy, Iceland
o) Agora Energy Technologies, which recently won a Keeling Curve Prize for its CO2 redox flow battery (CRB).
q) Center for Negative Carbon Emission of Arizona State University
r) UK Carbon Capture and Storage Research Centre
11) Short 2-min. video about current warming trend and links to related information: Current Climate Warming Trend, Expected Impacts & What Can Be Done?
Section B: Carbon Capture, Utilization, and Storage Research:
12) Organizations that have completed CCUS related research along with some trade associations:
f) IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme (IEAGHG)
13) Notable Articles, Reports and Websites Relating to Carbon Capture and Storage:
a) Wiki article on Allam Cycle: Allam Power Cycle
b) Webpage by NET Power about Allam-Fetvedt (AF) Power Cycle
c) Overview wiki article: Carbon Capture and Storage
e) Wolf Mid-stream – Wolf’s Carbon Business Unit
j) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) article: Post-combustion Capture
k) Wiki article: Syngas from coal
l) MIT engineers develop a new way to remove carbon dioxide from air, October 24, 2019 (Process can work on the gas at any concentrations, from power plant emissions to open air)
n) Leveraging the Ocean’s Carbon Removal Potential, October 8, 2020 By Katie Lebling and Eliza Northrop 
r) CarbonBrief: Around the world in 22 carbon capture projects by Dr Simon Evans, October 7. 2014
u) IEA report: Carbon capture, utilisation and storage, Last updated Jul 1, 2021
v) Evaluation of Novel Post-Combustion CO2 Capture Solvent Concepts – IEA Greenhouse Gas R&D Programme – Technical Study Report Number: 2009/14.
w) Wiki article on Direct Air Capture (DAC) of Carbon Dioxide: Direct Air Capture.
x) Reuters: Global climate goals ‘virtually impossible’ without carbon capture: IEA, Sep. 24, 2020 (IEA Report: To meet goals,“the amount of CO2 captured must rocket to 800 million tonnes in 2030 from around 40 million tonnes today”.)
14) Related Videos:
b) How carbon capture plant using Mono-ethenol Amine works (for capturing CO2 from industrial plants)
c) Video by Gov’t of Alberta: Carbon Capture and Storage (animation), Jul 7, 2009
d) CO2 Separation – How It Works, Mar 13, 2018 (using Cameron’s CYNARA Membrane separation technology)
e) Concrete Carbon Capture by Just Have a Think
15) Reference information for utilization of CO2:
a) Video and links to related information: Paradigm Shift: Clean Energy Powered Indoor Farms
d) Article: These uses of CO2 could cut emissions — and make trillions of dollarsFrom concrete to fuels, CO2 from the air can replace CO2 from the ground, Nov 27, 2019.
Section C: Financing
16) Financing Allam Cycle Projects on a Global Scale:
a) Green Bonds can be an effective way to finance many Allam Cycle-based power generation projects.  When the green bonds are issued, they can be promoted to financial firms that are members of the following initiatives:
iThe Glasgow Financial Alliance for Net Zero (GFANZ), which includes firms with over US$70 trillion US under management.
ii) Climate Action 100+ initiative, which includes firms with over US$35 trillion in assets under management.
iii) Coalition for the International Platform for Climate Finance (IPCF), which includes firms with over US$7 trillion in assets under management.
Note: Some of the financial firms that are members of one initiative listed here may be members of other initiatives listed here.
b) Steps to issue a Green Bond by Sustainalytics, February 6, 2019
c) Many companies that are partners of ClimateBonds.net are now facilitating the issuing of Green Bonds.  To view a list of them, visit: ClimateBonds.net/partners.

Section D: Acceleration and Scale Up of DAC & CCUS Technologies

17) To accelerate the scale-up of DAC technologies, CCUS and DAC research centers could be invited to work on projects such as the ones outlined below:

a) Select best locations for facilities using DAC technology. Then estimate the expected capital and operating costs of an appropriately sized facility based on local conditions and availability of energy.
b) Explore complementary technology options, such as Vertical Farms, for selected possible locations for implementation.
c) Explore options to receive CO2 from large emitters of this gas that can be sequestered in the same location as the DAC site.
d) Work with Green Bond specialists to evaluate selected projects and determine if they are “Green Bond Eligible”.
e) Reach out to potential partners who may want to finance and/or operate facilities.
f) Prepare proposals for funding next steps needed for scale-up.

For a more detailed summary of research projects that can be implemented by CCUS and DAC research centers, visit: Set of Proposed Research Projects Relating an Opportunity that has Emerged to Reduce Carbon Emissions on a Global Scale.

18) To accelerate development a range of DAC technologies, including TerraFixing’s technology, and enable a larger pool of CCUS experts to become knowledgeable about this technology, demonstration projects utilizing this technology could be implemented in major CCUS clusters such as:

a) Alberta Carbon Trunk Line (ACTL) system
b) Net Zero Teesside.

Each of these CCUS clusters already have several companies working together to utilize a common CO2 sequestering service and are inviting more companies to join them to utilize this same sequestering service.  To view a more comprehensive list of these types of clusters around the world, see: Global Status of CCS 2020 report by Global CCS Institute.  For some additional background about these types of clusters around the world, see: Understanding Industrial CCS hubs and clusters by the Global Carbon Capture and Storage Institute.

19) Research funding can come from the existing sources for these institutes and very high net worth (VHNW) individuals who are very concerned about climate change.

20) Puro Earth indicates on its website that it is “the world’s first B2B marketplace, standard and registry focused solely on carbon removals”. To help companies obtain capital to build a facility, Puro-Earth helps facilitate long term off-take agreements for the carbon that is expected to be captured and stored by this facility.

21) Several well researched DAC reports have been published over the last few years including the following:

a) CNE: The Case for Negative Emissions (144 pages) by the Coalition for Negative Emissions
b) McKinsey: Driving CO2 emissions to zero (and beyond) with carbon capture, use, and storage, June 2020
c) McKinsey: Net-Zero Europe – Decarbonization pathways and socioeconomic implications – How the European Union could achieve net-zero emissions at net-zero cost
d) ECI: DAC Climate Mobilization Report, – Mobilize Now – Scaling up Direct Air Capture by The Elk Coast Institute, Oct 2021
e) ECI: The case for Mobilization, Peter Eisenberger, May 2020
f) ECI: Carbon Negative Power Plants, May 2011, Peter Eisenberger and Graciela Chichilnisky
g) Research Opportunities for CO2 Utilization and Negative Emissions at the Gigatonne Scale by Arun Majumdar & John Deutch
h) C2ES: Carbon Dioxide Removal: Pathways and Policy Needs, June 2021
i) Microsoft: Microsoft carbon removal Lessons from an early corporate purchase, 2021
j) Wiki article on Direct Air Capture (DAC) of Carbon Dioxide: Direct Air Capture.

23) Some Battery-based Utility Scale Energy Storage Companies:

b) UniEnergy Technologies – Vanadium Redox Flow Battery; Wiki Page
c) Tesla Utility-Scale Energy Storage – Lithium-Ion Battery
e) Form Energy – Iron-air battery; Video Review: Just Have a Think: Iron-Air Battery, Aug 1, 2021
f) ESS Inc. – Iron Flow Battery

Section E: Summary

24) In summary, scaling-up DAC technology with power plants that do not emit carbon emissions may be one of the biggest opportunities to reduce CO2 emissions on a global scale before 2030 and beyond.  It includes the following key features:

a) Technologies are available now for scale-up.
b) We can engage the fossil fuel, energy storage, renewable energy and direct air capture sectors to participate in and benefit greatly from it.
c) Financial mechanisms and money are available to fund a massive scale of these technologies.
d) There are natural resources and locations available to implement this on a global scale.

Section F: Next Steps

25) Given below is a list of information that is now in the process being researched by ClimateSAN:

a) Capital and operating cost of 300 MW power plant running the Allam Cycle.
b) Expected cost per MW of 300 MW power plant running the Allam Cycle at close to 100% capacity utilization.
c) Expected capital cost premium for construction of power plant and DAC facility areas near or in the Arctic circle.
d) Expected cost of carbon sequestration.